If you hand coal and steel production over to a supranational authority...then war becomes impossible


Soviet anti-fascism & a distrust for nationalism

Anti-fascism becomes central to the political order of the Soviet Union and at its core is a charred distrust of nationalism.
The 1956 Hungarian Uprising marks the first major revolt against the Soviet ruled communist system.

Western Europe's vision of unity

The Schuman Plan of 1950 leads to the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSE) in 1952.
The 1957 Treaty of Rome then transforms the six nations of the ECSE, into the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1958.

Covert CIA funding into a United States of Europe

In secret, the US funnels millions of dollars into the European project via the American Committee for a United Europe (ACUE) - a CIA front organisation - in the hope that a united Europe would serve as a bulwark against Soviet aggression.

Soviet anti-fascism & a distrust for Nationalism

Delegates at the signing of the European Common Market Treaty in Rome. | PHOTO BY KEYSTONE/GETTY IMAGES
Anti-fascism becomes anti-westernism

By the 1950s, the division of Europe into two ideological blocs is a political, economic and cultural reality.

Anti-fascism becomes the basis of stability and the main legitimating myth of the Soviet Union – fascism is seen as a crisis of capitalism.

At the core of Soviet anti-fascism lay a charred distrust of nationalism. But the communist hierarchy, now under Nikita Khrushchev, was quick to understand that national traditions had political value.

Nationalism was tolerated by the communist regime when it served a purpose.

But when that purpose was in the interests of sovereignty, tolerance turned to belligerence.

Budapest uprising 1956: A RIP in the iron curtain

  • The Marshall Plan was an American initiative to aid Europe after the end of World War II. Funds were initially offered to Soviet Bloc countries as well, but were rejected by Stalin.
  • The United States gave over $13 billion in economic support to rebuild Western European economies.
  • The plan was in operation for 4 years beginning April 8, 1948.

Western Europe's vision of unity

Portrait of Jean Monnet, French General Commissioner for Economic Development, circa 1950. | PHOTO BY PICTORIAL PARADE/HULTON ARCHIVE/GETTY IMAGES
Jean Monnet’s idea was to create a supranational authority to hive off coal and steel, which were seen at that time as the sinews of war

In May 1950, two years after the Marshall Plan had been put into effect, France’s Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, laid bare the vision of European unity.

What was the 1957 treaty of rome?

  • The 1957 Treaty of Rome transformed the six nations of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) into the European Economic Community (ECC).
  • France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg aimed at achieving integration via trade with a view to economic expansion.
  • It was the first time the six member states gave up part of their sovereignty - albeit in a limited form - in favour of the community.

Following the creation of the European Union in 1993, it has enlarged to include an additional 16 countries by 2013.

Covert CIA funding into a United States of Europe

Together at the opening session of the 'Action Committee for a United States of Europe,' Jean Monnet, of France; Germany's Marting Blank; and Alexander Elbraechter, also of Germany
The CIA was doing everything it could to promote [a United States of Europe]

In 1955, Jean Monnet set up the Action Committee for a United States of Europe, a pressure group that went beyond preventing war – it aimed for nothing less than a European super-state.

It was an idea that found powerful friends and common purpose across the Atlantic.

A federal Europe would consolidate what the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation had been set up to do - keep Soviet power in check.

By 1955, just weeks after West Germany entered NATO, the Soviet Union formalised the Warsaw Pact – drawing in nations from Central and Eastern Europe in a common counter-purpose: challenging Western domination.

Europe was once more the centre of ideological struggle.

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