Timeline of communist parties in Nepal
  • Mohan Bikram Singh sows seeds of communism in Thabang village of Rolpa district

  • Communist party of Nepal (Fourth Convention) formed by Mohan Bikram Singh and Nirmal Lama. The Maoists trace their roots to the CPN (Fourth Convention)

  • CPN (Masal) splits to become CPN (Mashal) under the leadership of Mohan Baidya

  • Pushpa Kamal Dahal or Prachanda takes over CPN (Mashal) after Baidya steps down

  • CPN (Fourth Convention) merges with CPN (Mashal) and other smaller communist parties to form CPN (Unity Centre)

  • United People’s Front formed as an overt political wing of Unity Centre. It fought the first democratic elections in 1991

  • CPN (Unity Centre) renamed as CPN (Maoists)

  • People’s Liberation Army formed by Maoists. When the war ended in 2006, UN verified the total number of Maoist combatants at 19,602

  • Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoists) formed after merger of CPN (Maoists) and CPN (Unity Centre-Masal)

  • UCPN (Maoists) splits. The splinter group named as CPN (Maoists)

  • Maoist ideologue Baburam Bhattarai quits Maoist party. Forms his own party – Naya Shakti (New Force

  • Several factions of Maoist parties join hands to form Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist-Centre) under the leadership of Prachanda

Timeline of Nepali politics
  • Armed wing of the Nepali Congress party begins rebellion against Rana rulers

  • End of Rana rule. Tribhuvan Shah becomes king after help from India

  • First democratic elections, Nepali Congress wins with big majority

  • King Mahendra Shah, Tribhuvan’s successor, sacks Bishweshwor Prasad Koirala as prime minister. Announces Panchayat system of governance

  • King Birendra lifts ban on political parties and promises democratic elections

  • Girija Prasad Koirala of NC becomes prime minister after the country's first democratic elections

  • Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) comes to power. Manmohan Adhikari becomes prime minister

  • Operation Romeo lunched in Rolpa and Rukum districts with 2,200 policemen. Over 6,000 people flee, many of them join the Maoist upon their returned

  • Maoists launch an armed rebellion

  • The war ends and The People's Movement (Jan Andolan) is launched after seven parties, including the Maoists, join hands against king Gyanendra

  • Nepal declared a secular republic marking the end of the Hindu kingdom

  • Maoist party emerges as the largest party in the first Constituent Assembly elections. Prachanda becomes prime minister

  • Prachanda resigns as Prime Minister after eight months in office

Demographic composition of Nepal